Alveolar ridge
The bony ridge of the maxilla containing the teeth.
Audible nasal emission
Nasal air escape associated with production of consonants requiring high oral pressure. Audible nasal emission refers to nasal emission that can be heard.
Articulation
The process of forming speech sounds.
Bilateral cleft
A cleft on both sides of a lip or palate.
Cleft
A split or separation.
Cleft lip
A congenital split in the upper lip.
Cleft palate
A congenital split in the roof of the mouth.
Compensatory articulations
The articulators (tongue or soft palate) are placed inappropriately so as to enable correct creation of certain sounds.
Congenital
A disease, deformity, or deficiency existing at the time of birth.
Eustachian tube
The air duct which connects the nasopharynx (back of the throat) with the middle ear; usually closed at one end, opens with yawning and swallowing: allows ventilation of the middle ear cavity and equalization of pressure on two sides of the eardrum.
Fistula
An abnormal opening or gap.
Genetics
The science of heredity.
Hard palate
The bony part of the roof of the mouth just behind the teeth.
Hypernasality
Greater than normal nasal resonance during speech.
Hyponasality
Denasality. A lack of normal nasal resonance during speech.
Inaudible nasal emission
Nasal air escape associated with production of consonants requiring high oral pressure. Inaudible nasal emission refers to nasal emission that cannot be heard.
Malocclusion
A deviation from normal occlusion or incorrect positioning of the upper teeth in relation to the lower teeth.
Mandible
The lower jaw bone.
Maxilla
The upper jaw.
Myringotomy & tubes
A minor surgical procedure in which a small slit is made in the eardrum to allow fluid to drain from the middle ear. A ventilation tube may be placed to keep this space open.
Nasal emission
An abnormal flow of air through the nose during speech. Usually indicative on an incomplete seal between oral and nasal cavities.
Nasometer
A microcomputer that measures air escape through the mouth and nose when producing high oral pressure consonant sounds.
Phoneme specific nasal emission
When a child produces nasal emission on certain sounds, and not all pressure sounds. This indicates that the child has developed a learned behavior and produces these sounds incorrectly, not that they are unable to produce these sounds correctly.
Soft palate
The movable part of the roof of the mouth behind the hard palate.
Unilateral cleft
A cleft on one side of the lip or palate.
Velopharyngeal Incompetence
Failure of the soft palate to meet the posterior pharyngeal wall and form a barrier to separate the oral cavity from the nasal cavity during correctly produced speech.